Information Technology in Healthcare

IT has become a fundamental part of our day-to-day lives. It’s in this that the healthcare sector has also gotten onto the train. This has been a result of the massive positive impact that IT has had in our lives. It takes just a few seconds and a dollar to make a phone call across the globe, while ten-twenty years ago, this was unimaginable.

Medical care can be improved through Health Information Systems (IT) in various ways. It is beneficial to both patients as well as medical practitioners. Healthcare software solutions are cost-effective; provide centralized management of patient records, billing, financial management and other key aspects related to the healthcare management. Thus, besides managing patient records, healthcare services providers/medical practitioners can benefit from software to manage and organize their business.

Administratively, it helps in preventing errors, which were most probably a big headache in the traditional paperwork environment. Creating medical bills, recording patient profiles and generating piles and piles of medical files were very hectic and error-prone. However, with efficient healthcare software, one can expect smooth healthcare management, with minimal mistakes if any. It enhances the level of productivity through time saving while creating bills, invoices, balancing accounts, recording patient reports etc

Healthcare software systems all-in-all bring about an increase in quality of the service delivered and bring about efficiency gains within the organization; promoting patient safety, upgrading security protocols, electronic health records, computerized provider order entry. Besides this, electronic billing and claims submission rapidly generate additional savings by decreasing the costs of creating bills and speeding reimbursement.

Many healthcare software solutions incorporate features such as administrative billing and financial general ledger, cost accounting systems, patient registration, personnel and payroll, electronic materials management, clinical computerized provider order entry for drugs, lab tests, procedures, electronic health record, picture archiving and communication systems, filmless imaging, results reporting of laboratory and other tests, clinical decision support systems, prescription drug fulfillment, error-alert, transcriptions, electronic monitoring of patients in intensive care, units, it infrastructure such as desktop, laptop, and tablet computers, servers and networks, wireless networks, voice recognition systems for transcription, physician orders, and medical records, bar-coding technology for drugs, medical devices, and inventory control, information security systems, physicians, administrative billing, and financial accounting, scheduling, clinical online references (drug compendia and clinical guidelines), receiving lab results and other clinical information, online, electronic prescribing, computerized provider order entry, clinical decision support systems, electronic health record, e-mail communication with patients infrastructure desktop and laptop computers handheld technology servers and network.

A Solution to Your Electricity Stress

I will personally congratulate you that eventually, you are able to get the right way today after all wonderings. It is a system whereby you will build your own electricity generator by yourself using magnets at a give away price. I am not condemning anybody or any company that have introduced some systems to you before, but remember that technology moves on daily basis, so, some systems that worked in the past year might now be outdated.

This time around, we need something more perfect not just something good. Whoever uses our system will want to intimate friends and even enemies about it because it is a successful technique that makes life more convenient to live in. Power failure may disorganize man, job, proposals or anything! This is why I think about how we can proffer a lasting solution to the issue of electricity in our areas. Everybody will enjoy maximizing the utilization of their electricity for free. It is very interesting. This system is so wonderful and so convenient to maintain. It is a system operated without stress.

Free Electricity Source is constructed with a give away price and later maintains without paying a dime to any company. One thing that interests me most about this system is the independent granted onto users. As a matter of fact, this system has made some people to become employer of labor. The manual that we introduce to you is one of the best analyzed manuals because it is self explanatory to an extent that it does not require a big certificate before you can understand the content of the manual. In fact, there is no extra training required. Just follow the directives as analyzed in the manual and this will definitely guide you till you get a successful result.

In addition to the guide provided, there are tips for you as well on how to reduce your electricity consumption. On the other hand, your power generator is right at your door step for maintenance and supervision and you are in control. This has been my joy that I have everything within my domain! Think about this offer now, because as time goes by, you might have to queue before your request is processed. Join the successful crew and let your decision be now. Remember that there are so many people around you, waiting for you to lead them aright on the issue of free electricity supply.

Phone System Technology – Business VoIP

In this article we’ll discuss new business phone   system  technology  solutions  built around VoIP and advantages for New Jersey businesses. We’ll focus on two popular  solutions  in particular: hosted phone  solutions  and traditional IP PBX phone  systems .

A Hosted Phone System is very attractive in the right environment. You’re only responsibility is buying or renting the individual phones. The “soft switch” is hosted off site. This seems to have the most economic impact under 20 users. It can bring a lot of features and flexibility without adding additional costs. You’re getting large phone system features at a fraction of the cost. It’s truly a win-win in the right setting.

An IP PBX Phone System is more of a traditional model, the same concept but very different in its architecture. It’s now a server in the rack. Most companies are already accustomed to buying, leasing or renting their phone system. You’re on the hook and responsible for system maintenance and software upgrades. Software upgrades are a new concept we need to accept with the IP based PBX. It’s typically more of an initial investment, although new designs with targeted solutions can be cost justified quickly with the correct implementation as its feature rich design offers many “inside the box” attributes. In most cases this type of solution makes the most sense in an environment over 20 users.

Cost Savings – New phone system technology offers the ability to utilize VoIP lines/trunks. By switching from traditional analog phone lines to VoIP, or commonly known as SIP trunks, businesses can see immediate savings. SIP trunks are delivered through the internet. Most of these calling plans offer either unlimited calling or enough built in minutes that it’s a cost effective change. SIP trunks also offer features that analog trunks don’t.

Flexibility – Whether it’s a hosted phone  solution  or a traditional IP PBX phone  system , both give businesses the flexibility to grow their organizations beyond the boundaries of standard technology. Adding remote employees is cost effective, the ability to activate inbound and outbound calling features via the web along with the use of desktop interfaces all add to the attractive nature of new technology.

Disaster Recovery – SIP trunks offer a dynamic disaster recovery feature that is very costly in a traditional phone system model. You’re now able to quickly and easily redirect calls from a web portal in the event of a power or system failure.

Phone System Manufacturers offer similar features however some deliver these features better than others. Obviously a system that’s reliable, easy to maintain, easy to use and easy to make changes to would be highly rated by both the end user and the vendor. Current research and development is focused on these VoIP offerings. Very little attention is placed on the standard phone systems as technology feeds itself and kicks into high gear.

Requirements – The main requirements for a successful VoIP implementation are related to bandwidth and Quality of Service (QoS). If you’re using the public internet, there are occasional issues that need to be worked out with your internet service provider. Best case would be a managed circuit but it’s not always feasible due to cost control.

Phone system technology is literally staring us in the face. We can choose to grab it by the horns and let it help us steer our course or turn our back to it and be bitten by it in the rear.

Disaster Recovery and Backup-Restore

If you are thinking about starting a business,   information   systems  will probably factor into your plans at sometime. The business will require some sort of application software and the requisite  information  created from the application – whether the  solution  is simply an Excel spreadsheet or something more advanced and automated like Quickbooks Pro or an enterprise resource management  system . Subjects like disaster recovery, data protection, cyber security, web filtering, etc., are subjects entrepreneurs should be thinking about. This is the first article in a series of articles that will introduce the new,and experienced, business owner to information technology intricacies that should be included in your business plans. The first issue introduced will be the idea of disaster recovery and data backup.

As a business owner, you must define what constitutes a disaster, how long it should take to restore operations, and what systems are critical to the function of the business. How long can the business operate in a degraded mode, or not at all, if none of the systems are available. How about email? If your email is not available at all, how long can you survive? What about your phone system? Your accounting systems? Your website?

What constitutes as a disaster for a business? Here are some events to think about:

Upgrading software, servers or workstations that fails or corrupts data.

Migrating data to centralized storage that fails or corrupts data.

Computer theft.

Fire, flood, hurricane, and other acts of God.

Virus breakout – both medical or cyber.

Hazardous material event, chemical spill, gas leak, etc.

Communication systems failure.

For disaster recovery, there are two components to recovering data – the backup and the most important, the restore of data. These are two very important distinctions. As an example, I had been doing some side work for a small health facility that had been hit by lightning and I was recovering the network connectivity. After I got the network operational, I left for the evening. The next day, the president of the company was working on the accounting system and accidentally hit the key that did the year end close on the books and it was only October.

The conversation went something like this:

“Can you please come in and restore the accounting data? I accidentally closed our books for the year.”

“Do you have a backup?”

“Yes, we back up every night.”

“Perfect, I can be there in about an hour.”

When I get to the facility, I asked where I can find the machine that did the backups and where the tapes were located. The software was BackupExec, I knew that software well. I bring up the management screen and look when the last time the backup ran. Last night, perfect. Now, what was backed up? Uh-oh – two directories, one was a WordPerfect directory and the other was a user’s home directory. I looked at other tapes – same thing. No other network data was being backed up, or at least nothing that was important to the accounting system.

I had to go to the president of the company and deliver the bad news. I am sorry but your backups are worthless. The backup machine did not have enough access rights to successfully backup the data that needed to be saved. The last thing I did, before I left, was setup the backup to login with an account that had sufficient rights to see all the data that needed to be backed up. I came back the next day to verify the back-up ran successfully and the data was properly backed up. I saw the data was being backed up properly. After I got the backups working, the company hired someone full-time to take care of the network and computers.

Here was the problem for this little disaster, to backup all the data successfully, the backup process had to be run as a admin-type user that can read all of the files and folders. There are actually three take-aways from this event:

1.Watch and verify backups are being done, finishing without errors and backing up everything that has been identified as important.

2.Identify someone to be responsible to watch and verify backups are being performed properly. That individual may not have to fix the backup, but the person will have the responsibility to make sure the backup gets fixed.

3.Verifying backups are being completed is only half of the task. You must practice to recover files and verify the data recovered is readable.

Restoration of data is the single most important task of doing backups. This concept seems self-evident but almost always missed. You can setup a backup and walk away for months without ever worrying that the data is being backed up because the logs are being watched. Then, the day comes when you must restore a file, an application, or, even worse, a server. This is not the time to be learning how to restore a file. The business is down, people can’t work because the data is unavailable.

If the business has only one person and computer, find an online backup service that will backup your data for your business for a fee. Some of these services can be very economical. You might also think about virtualization. Depending on how computer savvy you are, you can use a utility from VMware in which you can perform a virtualization technique known as a physical to virtual (P2V) conversion. The P2V will allow you to virtualize your computer leaving the physical machine completely intact. In the event something goes terribly wrong (a disaster), in a reasonable amount of time, you can have your cloned computer running. The virtual machine may not be completely up to date, but at least you did not lose everything like account payable or receivable information or your all important customer database and contacts.

For larger systems with centralized servers, virtualization is a good option but like the above scenario, the data may not be up to date. Then, there is another do it yourself option, in which, the business takes on the expense of backup software and media. One “do it yourself” option for a backup solution is an open source solution called Zmanda. The first benefit is the software is free to install and use. Just make sure you read all of the requirements needed for a successful implementation. Larger implementations can be outsourced, also. I am personally adverse to not having complete control over the data but the solution is like any other “cloud” solution. If you do not have the expertise in house, the outsourced solution may be best for your environment.

In Phoenix, there was an architectural firm that had just converted all their drawings to digital format. Shortly after that conversion, the building they were in had a fire and completely destroyed everything in the building. Following catastrophic events, if the business does not have a good disaster plan, businesses life expectancy averages another 18 months trying to recover before finally succumbing to the disaster. Businesses of all sizes need to prepare a disaster plan or hire someone to help develop a plan. It is not if a disaster will occur, unfortunately, it is a matter of when and to what degree. If you never have a disaster that is wonderful. But if you do, will you be prepared?

More coming later – but until then, look at our website for open source software @

Geographic Information System – Mapping of Our Future

Although they have been around for years, with the modern day technology, geographic  information   systems  are becoming more popular. Many businesses and organizations use geographic  information   systems  as their navigational tools more so today than decades ago.

In its simplest form, geographic  information   systems  pose as a map that pinpoints certain objects and characterizes the importance of those objects. GIS goes as far as back as cave dwellers. What do you think it was when they drew maps on the wall? They were allowing the readability of specific points of interest.

The geographic  information   system  is now more technical, as it has grown with age the same way our society has. It has become more complex and used much more often. The geographic  information   system  can now be found used with those who build roads, buildings, and much more. These geographic  information   systems  can be found in higher end businesses as well not just those that build. The GIS can help promote your business in ways that you have never heard of. Geographic  information   systems  are able to provide  solutions  to many potential problems business owners and workers face in today’s society.

Nowadays, you can find geographic  information   system  consultants that can help you to your specific needs. With the needs changing everyday for business owners and employees, geographic  information   systems  and consultants can develop new ways and processes of handling things in a more efficient and quick manner.

If you are looking for new results, ideas, and technologies, geographic  information   systems  is the process one should begin with. It allows you to view potential losses before they happen, therefore, allowing you to fix the problems before they actually occur. Geographic  information   systems  will serve as the building ground for the new successful business you will see in the near future.

Electronic Signature Solutions – Custom or 3rd Party

Many businesses, in an effort to reduce costs and improve efficiencies, are turning to electronic signatures. Keeping files electronic from creation through distribution and signature and into networked storage helps to eliminate expenses in almost every aspect of the business. Deciding how to implement an electronic signature solution into the business can be a daunting task.

Limitations of Custom “In House” Development

Large companies are sometimes in a position to create their own “In-House” customized proprietary solutions. While these systems may solve the immediate business need, they have limitations. VeriSign, one of the largest PKI   solution  providers, admits in their paper “ROI for PKI” [] that – “PKI  systems  are particularly expensive to maintain.”

One-off solutions are more expensive because only one company is supporting the cost of development, implementation and continued support. This produces both short and long-term expenses that many companies do not originally take into account. Even if cost is a non-issue, developing a solution to one company’s business problem can create a lack of functionality and expandability.

Problems with “Out of House” 3rd Party Services

The number one issue with most third party service providers is lack of freedom as control and power is often taken away from their users by restricting the type of file that can be used or how the information is presented. A business wants the freedom of getting a signature on any file type without having to convert it to MS Word or Adobe PDF. Users also want the freedom of usability – knowing that their customers can use any operating system and any internet browser. Most services do not have this flexibility.

Users often feel they have lost their freedom when they must pay expensive setup fees. Or they may not be willing to invest in a service that they may find does not suit their needs.

A New Approach to Electronic Signatures

Unlike previous electronic signature services, PrivaSign gives users the flexibility to use any file type and to have complete control of the creation and presentation of the file. Anyone can use PrivaSign with no setup fees or cancellation charges, users simply pay for the files they have signed. The PrivaSign solution is a smart decision for either large companies or single users wishing to save time and money.

PrivaSign’s patented technology allows for fast digital signature capturing on virtually any document and from any web browser. This flexibility will allow businesses to keep implementation costs at a minimum and increase the likelihood that signatories will be able to use the system.

Career Spotlight – Accounting Information Systems and Technology

Over the last few years, accounting information technology has been malformed at a tremendous pace. Earlier the accounting process was controlled by costly mainframe computers. These computers were programmed by specialized information system staff, but today it has now been changed to accessible and incorporated internet-based systems. Today the skills and abilities essential for the accountant include the proper knowledge of application and combination of I.T. into the accounting process. Adding to this, these days many companies are looking for accountants who also have a proper knowledge of managerial and financial accounting principles. In fact, today every organization is looking for accountants who are familiar with today’s systems. This is where career in accounting information systems and technology come into the picture.

The AISs and Technology is a field of almost limitless rewards and challenges. These days it is one of the most preferred career options that are pulling the attentions of many students. It is one of the few career options in the accounting domain that primarily ensures that all financial information within a company flow accurately and timely. Being a graduate in accounting information system and technology, a student has an option to make career as database administrator or even software technician.

In terms of salary, the profession offer opportunities to earn a very good salary. According to recent data annual the median wage for a graduate in accounting information systems and technology ranges from $119,791 to $158,757 per annum. Besides this, an accounting information system specialist can earn $47,500 to $69,000 annually. Though, at times, these salary data may vary depending on location of company or the size of the company. Moreover, in recent times, the requirement of professionals in this related field has increased phenomenally. As per the latest studies, made by the U.S. Department of Labor, the job prospects of for those holding an accounting information system degree is expected to grow at a faster rate than the average employment by the year 2014. Apart from this, many current accountants are approaching retirement age, which in turn clearly indicate the need of more professionals in this field.

So, by now if you are looking forward making a career in this field, earning a degree in AIS can guide you the right way. Today there are many universities in the United Sates offering Accounting Information Systems and Technology courses. The course can provide you a great help to learn and know more about the different business functions starting from financial reporting to managerial or cost accounting. The program may help you in enhancing your skills in enterprise resource planning system and accounting information system. In simple terms, it is a course that can help you learn more about application of information systems generally used in the field of accounting.

Certainly, today the career prospect for a graduate holding a degree in accounting information system and technology are surely very good and in next few years many job openings are expected to boom. Making a career in this field is certainly a good idea, but it can most satisfactory and fulfilling only if you have a proper training. If you are planning to make a career in this field, try to have a proper training and education, as it can help you make a great career and enjoy the rewards in this profession.

An Introduction to Management Information Systems

Management  Information   Systems , which are often abbreviated to MIS are a subdivision of internal business controls that usually refer to documents, IT, people and procedures. An MIS is usually applied by management accountants who will be trying to solve a business problem or setting a price for how much a product should cost.

MIS are actually quite different from other  information   systems . This is because the MIS are used primarily to analyse other  information   systems  that are used in the operational activities of any particular organisation.

So MIS is not a true  information   system  in the sense of technology, but nor is it a true business function. In fact it straddles both these disciplines and is a way in which technology can be harnessed along with business so that people can function more effectively.

Within any given organisation there may well be MIS professionals, but they are actually employed as systems analysts or even project managers. They often will act as a means of communication between management and the staff on the ground and they are actually a very valuable asset to any firm, since MIS professionals have the ability to analyse vast amounts of data.

This is the real beauty of Management  Information   Systems , they allow personnel to effectively and efficiently analyse huge amounts of data that would otherwise be too enormous to be analysed by humans. This means that trends can be spotted or patterns start to emerge. The MIS systems can also show dips or peaks in performance that may not be readily available when using other  information   systems , so they are incredibly important.

Origins Of Management  Information   Systems 

Initially computers were used to keep finances up to date word processing and in many cases accounting. But then more and more applications were invented all of which were geared towards providing management with useful and relevant information that would help them to manage their business and due to the nature of the information they contained, these applications became known as Management  Information   Systems .

Aim of Management  Information   Systems 

The main aim of MIS systems is to inform management and help them make informed decisions about management and the way the business is run. This highlights the difference between an MIS and other types of  information   systems  that do not necessarily contain information that will help managers make managerial decisions.

Further MIS Applications

One very interesting aspect of MIS systems is that they can be used to ‘predict’ the future. This means that a business can test out any differences that it may be planning to an existing strategy by running a Decision Support System, which is a programme that will run a simulation and look at the ‘what if?’ type scenario.

So if a company is thinking about putting its prices up then it can run a DSS to see what impact this would have on business. Obviously there can be no guarantees that this would be 100% accurate, since no one can predict the future, but what this can do is to let managers know the potential outcome.

The Decision Support System will have to look at, analyse, collate and interpret huge amounts of data to achieve this, but the important thing is that it can be done and the benefits that systems such as this can bring are indeed spectacular.

So if you think that someone who works in MIS is someone who is dealing with computers and IT support, then you are really only seeing a tiny part of the role. MIS systems, when used properly will actually help to shape and influence a company.

Construction Industry Solutions

Known in short as CIS; Construction Industry Solutions addresses a single market place, the construction industry.

The construction sectors requirements are highly specialised and CIS provide a solution that bests fits each individual client. Clients who use CIS can range from small house builders, specialist companies to the largest house builders in the country.

CIS is designed to give instant up-to-date information that allows you to manage your contracts . Knowing what money is owed to you and when it is due to be paid is one of the critical issues for any business and is no different in the construction industry. CIS eases this administrative burden.

Controlling the costs of a project can be an intimidating task for many businesses in the construction industry. Not only do businesses need to track the costs of purchases, there may be sub-contractors who need to be paid under HMRC’s Construction Industry Scheme regulations, as well as raising and chasing the Payment Applications to clients. Has a Payment Application been certified? How much is the Main Contractor Discount? When is the retention due for payment? How much profit did you make on that job? These are the typical questions asked, but quickly getting the answers can be the problem when running a construction project, which is how CIS can help.

The main features that CIS provide are as follows:

o The system provides complete control for contracts management, from costing

through to payment applications, VAT invoicing and cash receipt matching.

o If you consider the percentage of overruns on construction projects then there is clearly an immense need for software that can help aid in delivering a project on time and within budget.

o Cash management is crucial if you are to make a profit in a contracting environment. Pegasus CIS has been designed to allow up to date information so that you can service and manage your contacts.

o The financial position is always available and can be analysed and integrated using user definable view screens.

o The Management Information System (MIS) provides multiple financial reporting facilities, and because the system was designed with MS Windows in mind it has an export facility to Excel.

A CIS system allows direct costs to be input against a contract, as well as costs derived from labour timesheets, purchases, stock and from sub-contractors. There is also wide ranges of analysis reports available; giving businesses views of the current status of contracts, including job performance and detailed profit analysis reports.

Effective cash management can make a serious difference to the profit on a contract. Pegasus CIS gets you all the correct contract information across all stages of a job so that the status of the contract is ready for you straight away.

CIS differs from most systems as with other systems you are restricted in what data you can view as you are unable to go deeper into the critical information that you need. However a CIS system allows you to look up data from across the system; you can list screens, add filters and export information that you need straight away, which lets you see exactly what you need to.

Building an Information System

An information system (IS) can be defined as “a set of inter-related components working together to collect, retrieve, process, store and distribute information in order to facilitate the planning, control, coordination, analysis and decision making in companies and other organizations.”


The most common concepts of an information system are those in which:    


o Computer networks are systems of components of information processing;  


o The use of computer networks by firms are, in fact, interconnected information systems;


o Developing ways of using computer networks in business includes the design of the basic components of information systems;      


o The administration of information technology emphasizes the quality and value for business and security of information systems in an organization.      


The IS contains information about people, places, and those facts that help  managers to make decisions, analyze and visualize complex issues and solve other problems.  


For this, use a cycle of three basic activities: input, processing and output.     The IS has three basic functions in the organization of a company, which has the capacity to transform information into knowledge.


o Troubleshooting, by equating the proposal of solutions to support the manager of the company to act ;  


o Production of Knowledge, by obtaining information that would be difficult to access by other procedures;    


o Providing an awareness in problems of organization and development.  


There are some definitions of “management information system:


o  System of people, equipment, procedures, documents and communications that collects, validates, processes transactions, processes, stores, retrieves and presents data for use in planning, budgeting, accounting, control and management processes for various other administrative purposes.


o Systems for processing information to become management decisions;    


o Organized method of providing information from past, present and future, related to internal operations and external intelligence service. Serves to support the functions of planning, control and operation of an enterprise through the provision of information in the pattern of time appropriate to assist the decision-maker;    


o Man-machine integrated system that provides information to support the functions of operation, administration and decision making in the company;    


o Group of people or a set of manuals and equipment, data processing aimed to the selection, storage, processing and retrieval of data in order to reduce uncertainty in decision making through the provision of in time information for executives so they can use it for  the most efficient way;    


o System toward the collection, storage, retrieval and processing of information, used or desired by one or more executives to  perform in  its activities;    


o Organized method for providing the executive of information from the past, present and future on the internal operation of the company and the business environment


o Combination of people, facilities, technology, business environment, procedures and controls,   essential to process certain transactions in typical routines, to warn the executives to the significance of internal and external events,  providing a basis for intelligent decision making.        


Types of Information Systems      


An information system should provide quality information to business and filter them by levels of decision, or subdivide them into levels, according to the hierarchical functional levels that will use them and levels of decision that should receive the information with a summary for strategic decisions.    


An information system   expresses a fundamental conceptual structure, depends on human resources (the end users and experts in SI), hardware (machines and average), software ( programs and procedures), data (databases and knowledge bases) and network (mean of communication and support network) to perform activities of entry, processing, production, storage and control of resources that convert data into information products.  


An information system is an integral part of an organization and is a product of three components: technology, organizations and individuals, where:    


o Organizations – An organization is hierarchical and structured formed. Each organization has a specific culture, or fundamental assumptions, values and methods. An organizations need to build systems to solve problems created by internal and external factors;      


o People – people use information from systems based on computers in their work. They are required to enter data into the system, so that the computer can read them.


o Technology – the technology is the means by which data is processed and organized for use by people.   Computers replaced the manual processing technology and can perform millions and even hundreds of millions of instructions per second. An information system has features of Information Systems. In the basic model of   IS have been 5 resources keys: people, hardware, software, data and networks.    


o Human resources – people are required for all information systems, which are the end users and experts in IS.    


o Hardware Resources – all physical devices in equipment used in processing information. 


o Software Resources-all sets of operational instructions called programs,   functioning  for directing and controlling the hardware, beyond the sets of instructions for processing the information.


o Resource Data – more than the raw material is in fact a valuable organizational resource to be managed effectively to benefit all end users of an organization.    


o Resource Network – telecommunications networks such as the Internet, intranets and extranets, which are essential to the success in the operation of all businesses, is an important activity to characterize the success of the system.